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Darvin, Pramod and Aneesh, Chandrasekharan and Shankara Narayanan, Varadarajan and Leena, Chandrasekhar and RoshanThomas, Maliakkal and John , SamS.M and Shine, Varghese Jancy and Santhoshkumar, T.R (2020) Mitochondria targeted redox GFP reveals time and dose dependent onset and progression of mitochondrial oxidation with diverging cell death decisions during photodynamic therapy. Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy, 31. ISSN 1572-1000

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Abstract

Background Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a successful cancer treatment modality. In vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies with different photosensitizers reveal diverging cell fates, including apoptosis, necrosis, autophagy, and non-specific forms of cell death. The mode of action and efficacy of PDT is mediated through free radical generation and is highly dependent on diverse variables such as nature, dose, metabolism of photosensitizer, irradiation energy, and irradiation cycle. Aim Discovery of newer photosensitizers and optimization of PDT approaches to achieve a clinically relevant form of cell death called apoptosis requires better in vitro real-time methods. Oxidative damage and mitochondrial permeabilization are critical signaling events involved in photodamage and apoptosis. Hence, mitochondrial damage detection is an appropriate target signaling for mechanistic evaluation of PDT. Methodology We report mitochondria-targeted redox GFP expressing cells as a sensitive system to test and validate important variables of PDT using the photosensitizer 5-Aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) as a model. An independent FRET-based caspase sensor cell was also used to study the impact of the photosensitizer dosage and irradiation duration on the mode of cell death. Results The study reveals that the cancer cells expressing mt-roGFP are extremely sensitive to monitor mitochondrial oxidation induced by PDT. The extent of mitochondrial redox changes induced by PDT can be determined using these sensor cells by real-time image-based approaches. These approaches provide sufficient temporal resolution that is required to fine-tune and optimize the PDT conditions. The degree of oxidation of the probe is highly dependent on the dosage of photosensitizer and duration of light irradiation, which determines the nature of cell death. A real-time caspase sensor probe further confirmed that the caspase-dependent and caspase-independent nature of cell death is in high correlation with the extent of mitochondrial oxidation. A condition that triggers rapid and extreme mito-oxidation seems to favor necrosis, while delayed and slowly progressing redox changes contribute to caspase-dependent apoptosis. Conclusion The study confirms that temporal analysis of mitochondrial oxidation is a reliable biomarker for fine-tuning PDT conditions to achieve the desired outcome. This can be achieved using stable cancer cell lines expressing mitochondria-targeted roGFP by ratiometric imaging.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: PDT Redox GFP Apoptosis Necrosis Mitochondrial oxidation
Subjects: Cancer Research
Depositing User: Rgcb Library
Date Deposited: 31 Mar 2021 09:26
Last Modified: 31 Mar 2021 09:26
URI: http://rgcb.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/1026

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