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Amrutha , Mohan and Reshma, Raj Rajan and Gayathri , Mohan and Padmaja Kollenchery , Puthenveettil and Tessy Thomas, Maliekal (2021) Markers and Reporters to Reveal the Hierarchy in Heterogeneous Cancer Stem Cells. Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 9. ISSN 2296-634X

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A subpopulation within cancer, known as cancer stem cells (CSCs), regulates tumor initiation, chemoresistance, and metastasis. At a closer look, CSCs show functional heterogeneity and hierarchical organization. The present review is an attempt to assign marker profiles to define the functional heterogeneity and hierarchical organization of CSCs, based on a series of single-cell analyses. The evidences show that analogous to stem cell hierarchy, self-renewing Quiescent CSCs give rise to the Progenitor CSCs with limited proliferative capacity, and later to a Progenitor-like CSCs, which differentiates to Proliferating non-CSCs. Functionally, the CSCs can be tumor-initiating cells (TICs), drug-resistant CSCs, or metastasis initiating cells (MICs). Although there are certain marker profiles used to identify CSCs of different cancers, molecules like CD44, CD133, ALDH1A1, ABCG2, and pluripotency markers [Octamer binding transcriptional factor 4 (OCT4), SOX2, and NANOG] are used to mark CSCs of a wide range of cancers, ranging from hematological malignancies to solid tumors. Our analysis of the recent reports showed that a combination of these markers can demarcate the heterogeneous CSCs in solid tumors. Reporter constructs are widely used for easy identification and quantification of marker molecules. In this review, we discuss the suitability of reporters for the widely used CSC markers that can define the heterogeneous CSCs. Since the CSC-specific functions of CD44 and CD133 are regulated at the post-translational level, we do not recommend the reporters for these molecules for the detection of CSCs. A promoter-based reporter for ABCG2 may also be not relevant in CSCs, as the expression of the molecule in cancer is mainly regulated by promoter demethylation. In this context, a dual reporter consisting of one of the pluripotency markers and ALDH1A1 will be useful in marking the heterogeneous CSCs. This system can be easily adapted to high-throughput platforms to screen drugs for eliminating CSCs.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: ALDH1A1-DsRed2; NANOG-GFP; SORE6-GFP; cancer stem cell heterogeneity; cancer stem cells; phOCT4-EGFP.
Subjects: Cancer Research
Depositing User: Rgcb Library
Date Deposited: 20 Oct 2021 07:17
Last Modified: 20 Oct 2021 07:17
URI: http://rgcb.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/1055

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