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Surya, Ramachandran and Vinitha, A and C C , Kartha (2016) Cyclophilin A enhances macrophage differentiation and lipid uptake in high glucose conditions: a cellular mechanism for accelerated macro vascular disease in diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 15 (152). ISSN 1741-7015

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Abstract

Background Vascular disease in diabetes is initiated by monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium, transmigration and formation of foam cells. Increasing clinical evidence supports a role for the secretory protein, cyclophilin A in diabetic vascular disease. The means by which cyclophilin A contributes to vascular lesion development in diabetes is however largely unknown. Methods In this study we investigated using THP1 cells and human monocytes whether cyclophilin A under hyperglycemic conditions, functions in the inflammatory cascade as a chemoattractant and increases lipid uptake by formation of foam cells invitro. We developed an invitro model of monocytes cultured in 20 mm glucose (high glucose) equivalent to 360 mg/dL of plasma glucose levels. These monocytes were then differentiated into macrophages using PMA and subsequently transformed to lipid laden foam cells using oxidized low density lipoproteins in the presence and absence of cyclophilin A. This cellular model was used to study monocyte to macrophage differentiation, transmigration and foam cell formation. A similar cellular model using siRNA mediated transient elimination of the cyclophilin A gene as well as chemical inhibitors were used to further confirm the role of cyclophilin A in the differentiation and foam cell formation process. Results Cyclophilin A effectively increased migration of high glucose treated monocytes to the endothelial cell monolayer (p < 0.0001). In the presence of cyclophilin A, differentiated macrophages, when treated with oxLDL had a 36 percent increase in intracellular lipid accumulation (p = 0.01) when compared to cells treated with oxLDL alone. An increased flux of reactive oxygen species was also observed (p = 0.01). Inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, MCP-1 and cyclophilin A were significantly increased. Silencing cyclophilin A in THP-1 cells and human monocytes using siRNA or chemical inhibitor, TMN355 resulted in decrease in lipid uptake by 65–75% even after exposure to oxidized LDL. The expression of scavenger receptors expressed during differentiation process, CD36 and LOX-1 were decreased (p < 0.0001). Levels of extracellular cyclophilin A and other inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and MCP-1also significantly reduced. Conclusions Taken together, we describe here a possible cellular basis by which cyclophilin A may accelerate atherogenesis in diabetes mellitus.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Atherosclerosis Macrovascular complications Diabetes mellitus Macrophages Cyclophilin A Monocyte adhesion Transmigration Foam cell formation Hyperglycemia THP 1
Subjects: Cardiovascular Diseases And Diabetes Biology
Depositing User: Rgcb Library
Date Deposited: 06 Apr 2017 05:35
Last Modified: 08 Nov 2018 04:57
URI: http://rgcb.sciencecentral.in/id/eprint/338

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